The Amavasya

The Amavasya is the day of the conjunction of the sun and the moon, the fifteenth day of the dark half of a lunar month. The occurrence of Amavasya is based on the lunar calendar, which works on the 30-day lunar cycle. Amavasya, or the new moon, is the last day of the waning moon. These days are considered to be important for performing the rites for the departed ancestors.

According to the Vishnu Dharma Shastra, Amavasya is the day for the pitrus, or souls of the forefathers. This day is dedicated to the remembrance or worship of the forefathers.

The Legends elucidates it in a story of Acchoda.
Acchoda
Acchoda, was the mentally conceived daughter of the Barhishadhas. Barhishadhas are those who live on the divine soma juice. Acchoda did not have a father, so she constantly desired for a real father. As a result of her yearning for a mortal She lost all her divine and yogic powers and fell from Heaven.

 Pitru loka
While she was falling she prayed to be saved. The souls from the pitru loka (the world of the forefathers) heard her appeal, when she was passing through their pitru loka. They immediately came to her rescue. After hearing her story, they advised her to be born as King Amavasu's daughter. King Amavasu was a radiant, prudent and erudite man.

Later on things occurred as the pitrus formulated. Acchoda in the mean time regained her powers. In order to show her gratitude to the humble Pitrus a ceremony was conducted by Acchoda for the Pitrus.

King Amavasu
Amavasya is named after King Amavasu. And the custom of honoring our forefathers continues till this date. This custom is called as pitru karma. Pitru Karma is a plea by this generation to their forefathers to eliminate and safeguard them from any impediments. It is also a way to get blessing from their forefathers. 

Poorna kriya
Amavaysa is also known to be significant for many reasons. People conduct poorna kriya on Amavasya. This is generally connected with the birth of twins. This ceremony brings contentment and tranquility to the twins.

Somavati Amavasya
Somavati Amavasya or Somavara Amavasya is associated with the new moon which occurs on a Monday. Monday or Somawar is a moon's day. It is an auspicious day for observing the somavara Amavasya Vrata or fast, for the longevity of their spouses. 

Saamba Parameshware Pooja
According to the Puranas Shiva is supposed to be worshipped through the Saamba Parameshware Pooja since the moon stopped it's waning process when it came near Shiva, endangering the lives of those who meditate on him.

Contradictory to the fact that those who worship the Surya (sun) recognize Amavasya to be powerful and auspicious, while moon-worshippers understand the day as unsuitable

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